By V. G. Onipchenko (auth.), Vladimir G. Onipchenko (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1402023839

ISBN-13: 9781402023835

ISBN-10: 9048166497

ISBN-13: 9789048166497

Plant geographical description of the realm, syntaxonomy, spatial styles, floristic richness, constitution of plant groups when it comes to soil houses and herbivore impression have been defined for a mountain sector that's tough to entry. Seasonal, inter-annual, and long term dynamics of plants are mentioned at the base of long term observations in addition to pollen and phytolith analyses. inhabitants biology of alpine vegetation is studied through mixture of box observations and mathematical modelling. Plant inhabitants concepts and soil seed banks are defined for alpine crops from a number of groups. result of long term ecological experiments (plant reciprocal transplantations, dominant removals, gentle hassle) confirmed the importance of pageant and facilitation for group association. constitution of soil algal and fungal groups is represented in addition to mycorrhiza of alpine crops. major animal teams (wild) heritage and glossy nature conservation difficulties are discussed.

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Vorob'eva (1977) lists the following elements of the alpine landscape: a) valley bottoms (mainly glacial), filled with moraine and fluvioglacial deposits; b) moraine ridges; c) avalanche debris fans; d) bottoms of former lakes and lake-like glacial reservoirs, filled with fluvioglacial till; e) steep slopes, often notched by avalanches; f) gentle slopes and peneplain surfaces; g) mountain cirques with vast stone fields, screes, taluses, rock streams, snow patches and glaciers; h) rocks. The opportunities for snow accumulation as well as the duration and thickness of the snow cover on slopes vary greatly and depend on various factors, with the orientation and steepness of slopes being the most important (SchrOter 1926, Walter & Breckle 1994, Franz 1979, Reisigl & Keller 1987, Komer 1999, Onipchenko 2002).

The pure forb meadows are found in the upper reaches of river valleys, where one can find Anthemis marschalliana, Anemone fasciculata, Astrantia maxima, Betonica macrantha (Fig. 12), Campanula collina, Centaurea cheiranthifolia, C. 3. Plant geographical description of the area 45 montana, Erigeron caucasicus, Hedysarum caucasicum, Inula orientalis, Linum hypericifolium, Pedicularis condensata, P. atropurpurea, Polygonum alpinum, P. bistorta (incl. P. carneum), Pulsatilla aurea, Ranunculus caucasicus, Scabiosa caucasica, Trifolium canescens, Trollius ranunculinus, Veratrum album (incl.

The modem geological history of this territory includes repeated Quaternary glaciations, another major factor that has played an important role in the fonnation of the recent plant cover of the area. The botanical exploration of the Caucasus dates back 300 years: in 17001702 a French botanist Joseph de Toumefort visited the Transcaucasus Tbilisi, Echmiadzin and the Arax River valley. He was the first European scientist known to climb Mt. Ararat and gave a detailed description of its altitudinal zones.

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Alpine Ecosystems in the Northwest Caucasus by V. G. Onipchenko (auth.), Vladimir G. Onipchenko (eds.)

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