By Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill
Publication by means of Carolyn J. Hill, Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen
Read or Download Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth PDF
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Extra info for Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth
Outcomes for Young Adults in Two Cohorts 49 9. High school graduates who might have attended college briefly but who have not completed at least one year are coded as having no postsecondary educational attainment. 10. While GPAs are available for the NLSY79, we do not report them here because making comparisons across time may be problematic due to possible differences in grading (not necessarily performance) over time. Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores (not adjusted by age) are available for the 1979 cohort, while ASVAB scores (adjusted by age) are available for the 1997 cohort.
1 shows (consistent with other studies) that males tend to earn more, and work more hours and weeks, than do females; and that hourly wages for blacks tend to be lower than for whites, as do hours and weeks worked (where the difference is relatively larger). 15 The greatest gains in hours and weeks worked of any group were experienced by black and Hispanic females. This growth has been widely attributed to policy changes in the 1990s, primarily welfare reform and expansion of supports for low-income working parents such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and child care benefits (Blank 2002).
Among men, education and achievement can account for about a third of wage and weeks-worked differences by race; among women, they account for less than a third of observed differences in weeks worked. 23 The finding implies that scholastic achievement is only one of several important mechanisms through which young blacks are disadvantaged in the labor market. 6 also shows that achievement differences fully account for racial differences in the tendency to drop out of high school. In other words, when they have similar levels of school achievement, blacks tend to drop out of high school less than whites, and Hispanics drop out at similar rates.
Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth by Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill