By Thomas T. Mercer
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Additional resources for Aerosol Technology in Hazard Evaluation
Courtesy of The American Medical Association. 0 GRAMS OF SOLUTE PER GRAM OF SOLUTION FIG. 12. Effect of hydration on the aerodynamic diameter of cesium chloride particles. Diameters refer to dry particles. 49) where h is a constant for a given evaporating material and is a function of the ratio Δ/ν between the diffusion coefficient of the vapor and the kinematic viscosity of air. 276(Δ/ν)" 1/3 . 50) He verified this experimentally for drops of 100-900 μνα radius and for Reynolds numbers 2-800. 9.
Phase-transition for a droplet of NaCl solution (after Junge, 1952) . Courtesy of Cambridge University Press. D is its diameter, and ξ is its dielectric constant. For water or aqueous solutions, the term relating to ξ is essentially unity. A hygroscopic particle in humid air should begin to take up water when the relative humidity β of the ambient air exceeds / . A droplet of solution should evaporate to a dry particle if the relative humidity falls t o / . In reality, however, a drying droplet tends to become supersaturated and the relative humidity must fall well below/before the particle crystallizes out .
The average number of charges per particle appears to be related to the particle diameter . Very roughly, for the particle diameter in micrometers, the absolute value of the charge in units of the electronic charge is |5| = 25D. If the particles are in contact with a dissimilar material before dispersion, then the number of positively and negatively charged particles may or may not be equal. In general, if one material is an insulator and the other a metal, asymmetry will be quite marked, with the insulator carrying a negative charge and the metal carrying a positive charge.
Aerosol Technology in Hazard Evaluation by Thomas T. Mercer