By Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

ISBN-10: 0120299127

ISBN-13: 9780120299126

The volumes during this sequence conceal the development and innovation in optical and electron microscopy at a primary point. it truly is aimed toward microscopists and researchers not just attracted to microscope instrumentation but in addition in purposes starting from organic concepts to fabrics examine and commercial inspection

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In principle, one can achieve a given contrast at will by a corresponding demagnification of the electron source; however, this leads to a reduction of the current density in the hologram since the total coherent electron current is given by the brightness of the gun. The brightness B is the current density at the electron source emitted into the solid angle Ω (von Borries and Ruska, 1939) B = I/(FQ). (19) It is invariant under optical imaging. Taking nrl as the area of the source, the current emitted into the solid angle Ω = πδ2 becomes I = Β(πτ0δ)2.

On the other hand, incoherent aberrations influence the electron waves differently for different energies and different angles of illumination and hence destroy information irretrievably. As indicated above, the effect of aberrations is taken into account in the following way. The Fourier spectrum of the object wave given in the entrance pupil plane is multiplied by the wave transfer function T(R, r) = B(R, r)exp(i Z (R, r)). (46) χ(Κ, r) gives the deviation of the real from the ideal wavefront in the back focal plane, and £(R,r) is the aperture function describing the trimming of the spatial frequency spectrum by the objective aperture.

As was shown experimentally by Schmid (1985), electron interferences of the order of 160000 can be realized using a field emission electron gun. At present only about 1000 fringes are recorded in an electron hologram, so the modulus of longitudinal coherence can be assumed to equal 1. On the other hand, inelastic interaction of the electrons with the object under investigation strongly influence the contrast of the interference pattern: Even if the energy change is far less than the energy width of the electron beam, an energy difference between the two coherent electron waves dampens the contrast considerably.

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Advances in optical and electron microscopy by Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard


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