By Stephen Chapman MB BS MRCS MRCP FRCR, Richard Nakielny MA BM BCh FRCR
This ebook provides a synoptic description of the sensible info of ways to hold out the typical strategies in imaging on which an exam candidate could be anticipated to be typical. It doesn't try and conceal rarer ideas past the scope of the examination or to teach the ensuing pictures. each approach is defined lower than a suite of ordinary headings (for instance: equipment, symptoms, apparatus, sufferer coaching, strategy, aftercare, issues, additional reading).
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Extra resources for A Guide to Radiological Procedures
Br. J. Radiol. 5 3 , 7 3 9 - 7 4 6 . 8. G. & Pitfield, J. (1 983) The new low-osmolar contrast media: a simple guide. Clin. Radiol. 3 4 , 2 2 1 - 2 2 6 . 9. Dawson, P. & Howel, M. (1 986) The non-ionic dimers: a new class of contrast agents. Br. J. Radiol. 5 9 , 9 8 7 - 9 9 1 . 10. , Sahler, L G . W. (1982) Calcium binding in radiographic media. Invest. Radiol. 1 7 , 5 0 1 - 5 0 5 . 1 1. , et al. (1 988) Non-ionic contrast agents, red cell aggregation and coagulation. Br. J. Radiol. 6 1 , 9 6 3 - 9 6 5 .
Urograms with the compound Uroselectan were performed. This mono-iodinated compound was developed further into the di-iodinated compounds, Uroselectan-B (Neo-ipax) and diodone (Diodrast) and in 1952 the first tri-iodinatcd compound, sodium acetrizoate (Urokon), was introduced into clinical radiology. Sodium acetrizoate was based on a 6-carbon ring structure, tri-iodo benzoic acid, and was the precursor of all modern water-soluble contrast media. In 1955 a much safer derivative became available - diatrizoate (Urografin, Hypaque).
Water-soluble contrast medium (2-3% Urografin flavoured to disguise the taste [15-20 ml Urografin 150 diluted in 1 1 of orange squash]) or low-density barium suspensions (2% w/v) can be used. 1. Doses of contrast media in children depend on age. Pelvic scanning Rarely it may be necessary to opacify the rectum using direct instillation of contrast medium or air via catheter. The concentration of contrast medium should be the same as for oral administration; 150 ml is adequate. Vaginal tampons may also be used.
A Guide to Radiological Procedures by Stephen Chapman MB BS MRCS MRCP FRCR, Richard Nakielny MA BM BCh FRCR